720 XTF Search Results (browse-all=yes) Results for your query: browse-all=yes Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Starry night at Yerkes. Can you find the satellite in this time-lapse photo of the night sky over Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin? Fri, 20 Apr 2012 12:00:00 GMT Artist’s visualization of a collapsar. The collapsing star scenario that is one of the leading contenders as the cause of gamma-ray bursts. This artist's concept of the collapsar model shows the center of a dying star collapsing minutes before the star implodes and emits a gamma-ray burst that is seen across the universe. Many scientists say longer bursts (more than four seconds in duration) are caused by massive star explosions. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT The Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Bright Galactic Star Zeta Ophiuchi. The spectrum was recorded with the Copernicus satellite (1972) by Don Morton. The abscissa (x-axis) is in units of Ångstroms and the ordinate (y-axis) is in units of counts per 14 seconds. The spectrum was recorded point by point using a photo cell. The spectrum from 1197 Å to 1254 Å, which took 20 hours to record, contains four types of features: a) the strong absorption from the interstellar hydrogen line known as Lyman alpha near 1216 Å; b) a set of very narrow, deep lines due to neutral nitrogen at 1200 Å, twice ionized silicon at 1206 Å, and once ionized sulfur just past 1250 Å, all from interstellar gas; c) a wind containing four times ionized nitrogen blowing off the surface of the star at 1000 km/second (1233 Å and 1238 Å); d) general undulations across the top which are due to absorption lines in the atmosphere of the star itself. The sharp, narrow interstellar lines, item b, actually contain two components which cannot be distinguished in this spectrum because of insufficient resolution. This is the... Sat, 01 Jan 1972 12:00:00 GMT Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope after the integration of the burst monitor. Known as the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope prior to launch, the Fermi telescope includes two primary instruments: the Large Area Telescope with which astronomers can observe and study active galactic nuclei, pulsars, dark matter signatures, and other high-energy phenomena; and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor to study gamma-ray bursts. This image shows the assembled telescope in the clean room prior to launch. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT The Legacy of Uhuru. Marjorie Townsend and a colleague with the Uhuru satellite. Dr. Townsend, who was the Project Manager of the Small Astronomy Satellite Program, named the satellite Uhuru, which means freedom in Swahili. Uhuru would go on to detect evidence of black holes, neutron stars, and vast expanses of hot gas in systems containing thousands of galaxies. Wed, 02 Dec 1970 12:00:00 GMT Gamma-ray penetration of materials. Gamma radiation (which includes gamma rays, X-rays, and ultraviolet radiation) cannot penetrate our atmosphere, but can travel through materials such as paper and aluminum. Only heavy metals (such as lead) and other materials like concrete can block gamma rays. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Crashing Neutron stars can make gamma-ray burst jets. Short gamma-ray bursts are difficult to study because they are so short. Less than 2 seconds is not a lot of time to find the burst and capture some data. These images show the merger of two neutron stars recently simulated using a new supercomputer model. Redder colors indicate lower densities. Green and white ribbons and lines represent magnetic fields. The orbiting neutron stars rapidly lose energy by emitting gravitational waves and merge after about three orbits, or in less than 8 milliseconds. The merger amplifies and scrambles the merged magnetic field. A black hole forms and the magnetic field becomes more organized, eventually producing structures capable of supporting the jets that power short gamma-ray bursts. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Swift Instrumentation. Swift's three scientific instruments work together to learn as much as possible about gamma-ray bursts. The Burst Alert telescope (BAT) is the first instrument to detect gamma-rays in the quarter of the sky at which it is pointed. Then the satellite is reoriented using data from BAT so that XRT and UVOT, which have a much smaller field of view, can be pointed at the GRB. With this information, ground-based telescopes can be pointed directly at the source to gather more data about the GRB. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer. An artist's concept of the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer catching a gamma-ray burst. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Apollo 7 Launch. On May 25, 1961, President John F. Kennedy announced the ambitious goal of sending an American safely to the Moon before the end of the decade. This challenge guided the work of NASA and accelerated technology development through 17 Apollo Missions that took place between the years of 1967 and 1972. The President’s goal was achieved on July 20, 1969, when Apollo 11 commander Neil Armstrong stepped off the Lunar Module's ladder and onto the Moon's surface. This image shows the launch of Apollo 7 in 1968, the first Apollo mission to carry a crew into space. Tue, 01 Oct 1968 12:00:00 GMT HEAO-2. Renamed the Einstein Observatory after launch, the image on the left shows HEAO-2 during pre-flight testing. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Reviewing Data From the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). Dr. Gerald Fishman of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), a principal investigator of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory's (GRO's) instrument, the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), and Dr. Chryssa Kouveliotou of Universities Space Research Associates review data from the BATSE. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT AXAF. Renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory after launch, this image shows AXAF during pre-launch testing. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Aerobee Rocket. The Aerobee was a small, unguided sub-orbital sounding rocket, which is a rocket that carries research instruments. The Aerobees were used for high atmospheric and cosmic radiation research in the United States in the 1950s. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Air Shower Schematic. A schematic diagram of particles in an extensive air shower (EAS), approaching an array of detectors at the speed of light. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Atomic Pile [layer - photograph]. Photograph taken November 1942 during construction of the first nuclear reactor as the 19th layer of graphite was added. Layer 18, almost covered in the picture, contained uranium; alternate layers of graphite containing uranium metal and uranium oxide were spaced by layers of dead graphite. Construction was carried on in this manner to the 57th layer, which was one layer beyond critical or operating dimensions. The roughly spherical form of the structure is shown as is some of the supporting framework. The reactor was constructed under a section of the West Stands of the University of Chicago's Stagg Field, and was operated for the first time December 2, 1942. Sun, 01 Nov 1942 12:00:00 GMT Atomic Pile [sketch]. On December 2, 1942 using a nuclear reactor erected under a section of the West Stands of the University of Chicago's Stagg Field, a group of scientists achieved the first self-sustaining chain reaction and thereby initiated a controlled release of nuclear energy. The reactor consisted of uranium and uranium oxide lumps spaced in a cubic lattice embedded in graphite. In 1943, the reactor was dismantled and reassembled at the Argonne National Laboratory. Photographic copy of drawing. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Auger Observatory Animation. This animation models how an extensive air shower (EAS) is detected by the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory Engineering Array. The cosmic ray particles spread out to form a shower front. The shower front is illustrated using green dots to represent electrons and positrons, and red dots to represent muons. Yellow indicates that particles have been detected coincidentally by one of the water tank detectors. Slight differences in the detection times at the various tank positions allow scientists to determine the cosmic ray arrival direction. See the sketch of the cosmic ray creating an air shower and heading towards the detector on the previous page. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Third Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-3). Designed and built at M.I.T, the SAS-3 was a spinning satellite. The spin rate was controlled by a gyroscope that could be commanded to stop rotation so that all instruments could be pointed at a given source. Pointing could provide about 30 minutes of continuous data on a source, such as a pulsar, burster, or transient. This is a diagram of the instruments onboard the SAS-3. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT BATSE GRB distribution map. Each dot on the elliptal surface of this map represents the location of one of 2704 gamma-ray bursts detected by BATSE during its 9-year mission. The map’s perspective places the plane of the Milky Way centered horizontally across the map. The bursts are color-coordinated according to intensity with long, intense bursts colored red, and short, weaker bursts colored purple. Note that the majority of the bursts are colored green, which denote medium energy and/or duration. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Castle Bravo site. The site of the test of the first hydrogen bomb by the United States on March 1, 1954. This was the most powerful nuclear device ever detonated by the United States. This photograph shows the equipment used to the develop the test site, and the dirt foundation for the test structure. Mon, 01 Mar 1954 12:00:00 GMT Brooklyn College. Brooklyn College is a senior college of the City University of New York, located in Brooklyn, New York. Established in 1930, the College had its beginnings as the Downtown Brooklyn branches of Hunter College (then a women's college) and the City College of New York (then a men's college). With the merger of these branches, Brooklyn College became the first public, co-educational liberal arts college in New York City. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Sizzling Remains of a Dead Star. This new view of the historical supernova remnant Cassiopeia A was taken by NASA's Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, or NuSTAR. Blue indicates where NuSTAR has made the first resolved image ever of this source at the highest energy X-ray light, between 10 and 20 kiloelectron volts. Red and green show the lower end of NuSTAR's energy range, which overlaps with NASA's high-resolution Chandra X-ray Observatory. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Named in honor of the Nobel-prize winning Indian-American astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, the Chandra X-ray Observatory is the world’s most powerful X-ray telescope. It has eight-times greater resolution and can detect sources more than 20-times fainter than any previous X-ray telescope. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Dieter Hartmann in Peru. Dieter Hartmann with his wife in Peru on one of their many travels. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Dieter Hartmann as a child. Dieter Hartmann stands next to his mother on his first day of school holding an Easter cone full of candy. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Transmission of radiation through the atmosphere. Only visible, radio, and some infrared radiation penetrates the atmosphere. Ultraviolet photons, X-rays, and gamma rays do not. While observations at any wavelength benefit from instruments in space, detection of celestial of ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma-ray sources require instruments in space. The development of rockets led to our ability to place these special instruments in space. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Auger Detector. The Pierre Auger Observatory has 1,600 water tanks arrayed throughout a 1,200-square mile area in western Argentina. Each of the 3,000-gallon tanks is a particle detector for capturing cosmic rays. The Auger Observatory uses both water tanks and optical detectors to measure the cosmic ray air showers. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Volcano Ranch, New Mexico. (Left) John Linsley at Volcano Ranch. On February 22, 1962, Linsley observed an air shower created by a primary particle with an energy greater than 1020 eV, the highest energy cosmic ray observed up to that point. If a particle of this energy was created within the galaxy, it could not be contained in the galaxy. Linsley’s observations at Volcano Ranch suggested that not all cosmic rays are confined within the galaxy, as had been previously supposed. (Right) The plan of Volcano Ranch array in 1962, as it looked when Linsley made his observation. The circles represent 3.3 m2 scintillation detectors. Numbers near circles are shower densities (particles/m2) registered in the event. Point 'A' is the estimated location of the shower core. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT GRB Coordinates Network. Schematic of the GRB Coordinates Network (GCN), a system that distributes information about the location of a gamma-ray burst (GRB). The spacecraft sends the GRB location information down to a ground station, which in turn relays it to the GCN at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Typical Prompt GRB Spectrum. The typical spectrum of a gamma burst delineates the spectral range of two instruments on the Fermi Space Telescope: the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telecope (LAT). Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Jupiter and its moons. Jupiter and its four planet-sized moons, called the Galilean satellites, were photographed in early March 1979 by Voyager 1 and assembled into this collage. Io is the moon in the upper left corner of the image, and is the moon that is closest to Jupiter. Thu, 01 Mar 1979 12:00:00 GMT GRB 090423. One for the record books, gamma-ray burst 090423 was detected April 23, 2009, by the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer mission. The image is a composite of data from UVOT and XRT. The image is fuzzy because XRT does not have high enough resolution to produce sharp images. Thu, 23 Apr 2009 12:00:00 GMT GRIS germanium detectors. GRIS consists of seven of the world's largest, high-purity, n-type germanium (Ge) detectors. The detectors are cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures (in order to achieve high resolution) and are surrounded by a thick anti-coincidence shield which allows the rejection of background events from true astrophysical events. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT GRIS instrument schematic. Diagram illustrating the placement of the detectors and shields. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Balloon-borne experiment. The balloon and GRIS payload head up to a float altitude of approximately 40 km. At float, the 39-million cubic foot balloon will expand to about the size of a football field. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Herbert Friedman's Geiger Counter. Friedman holds U.S. Patent No. 2,475,603, for an adaptation of the tube used in a Geiger-Mueller counter. His tube design increased the counter's sensitivity to weak radiation sources by lowering the background noise of the counter itself. Figure 1 (upper left) is a cut-away view of Friedman's counter tube mounted within a container, called a shield. Figure 2 (lower left) is a front-end view of the tube. Figure 3 (upper right) is a cross-section of the tube showing the arrangement of parts and the structure used for mounting the tube within the shield. Figure 4 (lower right) is a cross-section diagram showing the tube anode and cathode, and a plot of the electric field within the tube. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Graduation, 1949. George Clark’s graduation picture from Harvard University. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Explorer 11 Detector. Draushaar and Clark’s detector for Explorer 11 was designed to detect gamma rays above 50 MeV. The image on the left shows the detector. It measured 20 inches high, 10 inches in diameter, and weighed about 30 pounds. The image on the right is a diagram of the detector, which consisted of a sandwich crystal scintillator and a Lucite Cherenkov counter, surrounded by a plastic anticoincidence scintillator. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Giacconi and Uhuru. Riccardo Giacconi stands with the Uhuru satellite, circa 1970. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT HEAO-1. The HEAO project involved the launching of three unmanned scientific observatories into low Earth orbit between 1977 and 1979 to study some of the most intriguing mysteries of the Universe: pulsars, black holes, neutron stars, and supernovae. This artist's conception depicts the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-1 in orbit. HEAO-1 was launched on August 12, 1977, to survey the sky for X-ray and gamma-ray sources, as well as to pinpoint their positions. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Horsehead Nebula, 1900. The Horsehead nebula is a dark interstellar cloud of dust and non-luminous gas situated 1,600 light years away in the direction of constellation Orion. This photographic image was made on January 25, 1900 by Isaac Roberts (1829-1904), an amateur astronomer. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Horsehead Nebula as Seen by Hubble. The Horsehead Nebula is one of the most identifiable nebulae because of the shape of its swirling cloud of dark dust and gases, which resembles to a horse's head when viewed from Earth. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT James Franck. After winning the Nobel prize in 1926, the career of James Franck took several sharp turns as the world drifted toward war. Shortly after Hitler's rise to power, Franck resigned as a professor of physics at the University of Göttingen to protest the Nazis' newly passed anti-Semitic legislation. An academic refugee, he taught at Johns Hopkins and Copenhagen before making his way to The University of Chicago, where he remained on the faculty until his death in 1964. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Gerard P. Kuiper Airborne Observatory. For over twenty years, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) was operated as the world's only airborne telescope devoted exclusively to astronomical research. KAO was named after the astronomer Gerard P. Kuiper. Carrying a 36-inch reflecting telescope, KAO was a converted C-141 military cargo plane with a 160-foot wingspan. Flying at altitudes of 41,000 to 45,000 feet, above 99 percent of the Earth's infrared-absorbing water vapor, KAO was capable of conducting infrared astronomy. Harvey would have observed from behind the telescope; the telescope was looking out the hole in the roof behind the cockpit. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Keck Mirror Assembly. The twin Keck telescopes are located on Mauna Kea, a dormant volcano in Hawaii. The telescopes are the largest optical and infrared telescopes in the world with segmented mirrors that are made up of 36 hexagonal shaped mirrors each. Each 10-inch telescope stands eight stories tall and weighs 300 tons. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Signing of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 10/07/1963. U.S. Senators look on as President John F Kennedy sits at a desk in the Treaty Room of the White House and signs the Limited Test Ban Treaty. On August 5, 1963, the Limited Test Ban Treaty was signed by the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union. After Senate approval, it was signed by President Kennedy on October 7, 1963. The treaty went into effect on October 11, 1963, and banned nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere, in outer space, and under water. Mon, 07 Oct 1963 12:00:00 GMT Virginia Farm Bureau News. Sputnik's launch captured the eye of the world, and Virginia, where Harvey Moseley grew up, is no exception. This article, which appeared in a Virginia newspaper soon after the launch of Sputnik, asks the question: Why did the U.S. lag behind Russia in getting a satellite into orbit around the Earth? Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT HST Center of M31. This Hubble Space Telescope image centers on the 100-million-solar-mass black hole at the hub of our neighboring spiral galaxy M31, the Andromeda Galaxy. It is one of the few galaxies outside of the Milky Way that is visible to the naked eye. This is the sharpest visible-light image ever made of the nucleus of an external galaxy. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Kraushaar and Clark. Professors William Kraushaar and George Clark close the air-tight cover on the balloon gondola that carried the second of their two (unsuccessful) balloon experiments in search for high-energy cosmic gamma rays. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Bruno Rossi. Professor Bruno Rossi supervises as a student assembles equipment for a cosmic ray balloon experiment in 1948. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Marshall Space Flight Center. The building in this photograph is the National Space Science and Technology Center in Huntsville, Alabama, is a laboratory for cutting-edge science and engineering research. It is a collaboration between NASA, Alabama universities, and other governmental agencies such as the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy. This is where Chryssa works. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Full-scale model of the James Webb Space Telescope. Northrop Grummon built an actual-size model of the JWST to help them better understand its size, scale, and complexity. The model is made of aluminum and steel, weighs 12,000 lbs., and is 80 feet high x 40 ft wide x 40 ft tall. The model visited a number of sites, including Dublin, Ireland, where it is pictured here in June 2007. On land, the model travels in 2 trucks and it takes 12 people 4 days to assemble it. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Yerkes Observatory. The 40-inch refracting telescope at the Yerkes Observatory of the University of Chicago. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT CoBE Spacecraft Construction. In 1989, the Cosmic Background Explorer (CoBE) spacecraft was launched into an Earth orbit to make a full sky map of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. CoBE found very subtle irregularities in the otherwise very uniform CMB, findings that are considered important evidence in support of the Big Bang theory. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT CoBE All-Sky Map. The final CoBE all-sky map of the apparent fluctuations in the cosmic background, thought to be the seeds of the large scale structure of the Universe. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Artist’s Impression of the Explorer 11 in Orbit. Explorer 11, the first gamma-ray detection satellite flown, was launched on April 27, 1961. The satellite could not be actively pointed, so it was put into a tumble in order to get a "rough" scan of the entire celestial sphere.. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Gamma Ray Sky Map. This all-sky image made in 2011 was constructed using two years of observations by NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. It shows how the sky appears at energies greater than 1 billion electron volts (1 GeV). Brighter colors indicate brighter gamma-ray sources. A diffuse glow fills the sky and is brightest along the plane of our galaxy (middle). Discrete gamma-ray sources include pulsars and supernova remnants within our galaxy, as well as distant galaxies powered by supermassive black holes. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT James Webb Space Telescope Mirrors. The JWST will have a large mirror, 6.5 meters (21.3 feet) in diameter. The mirror is being built in segments and will be mounted on a structure that will fold up to fit into a rocket. The mirror will then unfold after launch. In this picture, a team of engineers and technicians from NASA and Ball Aerospace prepare to load three of the JWST mirror segments into a test chamber at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. There, they will subject the segments to temperatures reaching minus 414 degrees Fahrenheit -- ensuring the mirror segments can withstand the extreme temperatures of space. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Microshutters. The James Webb Space Telescope's (JWST) Near-infrared Spectrograph will use microshutters that act like tiny doorways to block unwanted light from nearby objects in space, while allowing light from very distant stars and galaxies to shine through. The microshutters are assembled as an array about the size of a postage stamp. Each array contains over 62,000 shutters. Individually, each microshutter measures 100 by 200 microns, or about the width of a human hair. The telescope will contain four of these microshutter arrays. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT JWST Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec). Many of the objects that JWST will study, such as the first galaxies to form after the Big Bang, are so faint, that its giant mirror must stare at them for hundreds of hours in order to collect enough light to form a spectrum. In order to study thousands of galaxies during its 5 year mission, the NIRSpec is designed to observe 100 objects simultaneously. The NIRSpec will be the first spectrograph in space that has this multi-object capability. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT OSO 3 Detector. Scale drawing of the OSO 3 detector. Inset is a picture of the satellite. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT V-2 Rocket. A V-2 rocket is hoisted into a static test facility at White Sands, New Mexico. The German engineers and scientists who developed the V-2 came to the United States at the end of World War II and continued rocket testing under the direction of the U. S. Army, launching more than sixty V-2s. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Naval Research Laboratory. The Naval Research Laboratory is the corporate research laboratory for the Navy and Marine Corps. It is located in Washington, D.C. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Schematic of Grazing Incidence, X-Ray Mirror. This cutaway illustrates the grazing-incidence design and functioning of the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Artist’s visualization of a merging binary system. Gamma-ray bursts are common, yet random, and fleeting events that have mystified astronomers since their discovery in the late 1960s. Shorter bursts (less than two seconds in duration) are thought to be caused by mergers of binary systems with black holes or neutron stars. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT The VERITAS Array. VERITAS (Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System) is a system of four ground-based telescopes focused on gamma-ray science. Since gamma-rays cannot penetrate the atmosphere, the telescopes are detecting the particles created when gamma-ray photons collide with the atmosphere. Optical telescopes can then image the display the secondary particles make when passing through the atmosphere. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Orbiting Astronomical Observatory-3. OAO-3 was launched on August 21, 1972. It carried an X-ray detector built by University College of London's Mullard Space Science Laboratory and an 80-cm UV telescope built by Princeton University. After its launch, it was named Copernicus to mark the 500th anniversary of the birth of Nicolaus Copernicus. Copernicus operated until February 1981, and returned high resolution spectra of hundreds of stars along with extensive X-ray observations. This picture shows OAO-3 in the clean room at Kennedy Space Center. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT OSO Construction. The objectives of the Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO) satellite series were to perform solar physics experiments above the atmosphere during a complete solar cycle and to map the celestial sphere for direction and intensity of UV light, X-rays, and gamma radiation. The OSO-1, built by Ball Aerospace, was the first satellite to have pointed instruments and onboard tape recorders for data storage. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Guiseppe “Beppo” Occhialini. The Italian-Dutch Satellite for X-ray astronomy, Beppo-Sax, was named for Giuseppe Occhialini. The satellite played a crucial role in resolving the origin of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Robert Oppenheimer receiving the Enrico Fermi Award from President Lyndon B. Johnson. President John F. Kennedy awarded Oppenheimer the Fermi Award for his contributions to theoretical physics. President Johnson (on the right) shakes hands with Oppenheimer as he presents the award about one week after President Kennedy’s assassination. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Io - crescent with plumes. Voyager 2 took this picture of Io July 10, 1979, from a range of 1.2 million kilometers (750,000 miles). The image was part of an extensive sequence of "volcano watch" pictures of Io. The sunlit crescent of Io is seen at the left, and the night side illuminated by light reflected from Jupiter can also be seen. Three volcanic eruption plumes are visible on the limb. All three were previously seen by Voyager 1. On the bright limb Plume 5 (upper) and Plume 6 (lower) are about 100 kilometers high, while Plume 2 on the dark limb is about 185 kilometers high and 325 kilometers wide. The "volcano watch" sequence of pictures told us that these volcanoes are persistent, change with time, and are larger and last longer than those on Earth. Tue, 10 Jul 1979 12:00:00 GMT President Nixon Visits Apollo 11 Crew in quarantine. President Richard M. Nixon welcomes the Apollo 11 astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, the prime recovery ship for the historic Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Pictured are (left to right) Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., lunar module pilot. Apollo 11 splashed down on July 24, 1969, about 812 nautical miles southwest of Hawaii. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Ranch school students display their hunting success. Hunting expeditions were a regular occurrence at the Ranch school. Six students stand or kneel before their captures. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Dr. Robert H. Goddard and His Rockets. Dr. Goddard and liquid oxygen-gasoline rocket in the frame from which it was fired on March 16, 1926, at Auburn, Massachusetts. It flew for only 2.5 seconds, climbed 41 feet, and landed 184 feet away in a cabbage patch. From 1930 to 1941, Dr. Goddard made substantial progress in the development of progressively larger rockets, which attained altitudes of 7800 feet. Sun, 09 Apr 1905 12:00:00 GMT Bruno Rossi. Bruno Rossi standing before the multiplate cloud chamber used by his Cosmic Ray Group at MIT, 1954. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Wernher von Braun. A pioneer of America's space program, Dr. von Braun stands by the five F-1 engines of the Saturn V Dynamic Test Vehicle on display at the U.S. Space And Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama, circa 1969. Dr. von Braun served as the first director of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and was the chief architect of the Saturn V launch vehicle, the superbooster that propelled the Apollo spacecraft to the Moon. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Lewin’s Discovery. This image displays the light curve of the Rapid Burster discovered by Walter Lewin in data from SAS-3. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Science Talent Search of 1945. Winners of the 1945 Westinghouse Science Talent Search assemble with Vice-President Harry S. Truman. George Clark was among the top ten finalists who were selected as winners. He stands 6th from the left in the back row. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Space Shuttle. As humanity's first reusable spacecraft,NASA's space shuttle fleet began setting records with its first launch on April 12, 1981. Starting with Columbia and continuing with Challenger, Discovery, Endeavour, and Atlantis, the shuttle has carried people into orbit repeatedly, and launched, recovered and repaired satellites. The final space shuttle mission, STS-135, ended July 21, 2011 when Atlantis rolled to a stop at its home port, NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. A sixth shuttle, Enterprise, was used for testing, but never flew in space. Two shuttles failed and crashed in flight, but the remaining four shuttles are on display at public viewing sites around the country. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Sputnik Satellite. The Sputnik 1 satellite, shown here on a rigging truck in the assembly shop, was successfully launched and entered Earth's orbit on October 4, 1957. Sputnik shocked the world, giving the Soviet Union the distinction of sending the first human-made object into space and placing the United States a step behind in the space race. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Squash court under Stagg field bleachers. A transformed squash court housed history's first successful nuclear pile. [Enrico] Fermi chose this room because it was the only space available with ceilings high enough to permit construction of the latticed cube-like structure of graphite bricks embedded with Uranium 235. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Scorpius X-1. This image from the Swift X-ray Telescope shows an X-ray nova (designated J1745-26) and Scorpius X-1, along with the scale of moon, as they would appear in the field of view from Earth. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Time lapse video of soft gamma-ray repeater J1550-5418 over six days, captured by the Swift space telescope. Swift's X-Ray Telescope (XRT) captured an apparent expanding halo around the flaring neutron star SGR J1550-5418. The halo formed as X-rays from the brightest flares scattered off of intervening dust clouds. The animation shows the glow of the halo pulsing and dispersing over six days in January 2009. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Spectrum of a Star in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The LMC star is Sanduleak -67 166. The top two panels cover the spectral region from 920 - 1120 Å. To obtain this spectrum a special telescope, FUSE, had to be built with very few reflections and with a much more sophisticated detector than was used for Copernicus. This spectrum took 60 hours to record, three times longer than it took the Copernicus satellite to observe 50 Å in zeta Ophiuchi, a star that is 10,000 time brighter than this one. For this example, FUSE is effectively 7,500 times more efficient than Copernicus. The spectrum is completely dominated by the lines of molecular hydrogen from interstellar space, some in our Galaxy and some in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectrum of molecular hydrogen, which contains two hydrogen nuclei (protons) and two electrons, is obviously much more complex than the spectrum of atomic hydrogen. The vibration of the two protons leads to the bands denoted 1-0, 2-0, 4-0, etc., at the top of the two panels. Within each band are very narrow components more closely sp... Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT V-2 Experiments. As the Army set to work with V-2 rockets at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, scientific users were invited to fill the space of the 2000-pound warhead with instruments. E.O. Hulburt at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Optics Division jumped at the chance. Between 1946 and 1951, the NRL undertook 80 experiments using V-2 rockets that provided new and valuable information about the nature of Earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere. The first launch, on October 10, 1946, delivered the first recorded solar spectrum of the Sun from above Earth's atmosphere. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Preparing plant bed, tobacco series, Dinwiddie County. Modern farming requires machinery such as the tractor (foreground) and truck (background) seen in this image. Learning to use and maintain the equipment often spurs interest and expertise in how machines work. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT XQC Sounding Rocket experiment:. The sounding rocket took 15 minute flights to 240 km altitude and would land by parachute. This is the first test of the microcalorimeter in space. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT XRS-2. The XRS (X-ray Spectrometer) originated from Harvey's early ideas. This image shows the the second XRS in its front-end assembly which is filled with helium to keep the detector extrememly cold. The small, silvery blocking filter at the center of the image prevents optical, ultraviolet, and infrared light from entering the detector behind it, but allows X-rays to pass through. XRS-2 was launched on the Japanese spacecraft Suzaku in 2005, but it failed after launch. The first of the spectrometers, XRS-1, launched on the Astro-E spacecraft in 2000, but the launch failed and the spacecraft was destroyed. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT X-ray Crab Nebula. The Crab Nebula, some 6,000 light years from Earth, is the remnant of a supernova explosion. It was seen on Earth in the year 1054. At the center of the bright nebula is a rapidly spinning neutron star, or pulsar, that emits pulses of radiation 30 times a second. This view shows the Crab in the X-ray wavelength. Sun, 29 Aug 1999 12:00:00 GMT Artist’s visualization of J1550-5418. Gamma-ray flares from SGR J1550-5418 may arise when the magnetar's surface suddenly cracks, releasing energy stored within its powerful magnetic field. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Luis Alvarez. Sat, 15 Apr 1905 12:00:00 GMT Ernest O Lawrence. Ernest O Lawrence sitting at his desk in his office. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Average Spectrum of 22 AGNs (Active Galactic Nuclei). The spectra were shifted to appear as if they were not redshifted before being averaged. All the objects have spectra that look like quasi-stellar objects, but some are of low enough luminosity that the host galaxy is visible and has a name. The main features of the spectrum are as follows: a purple/blue line drawn through the spectrum is the "continuum," mostly due to the AGN, a continuous glow caused by a very hot gas in a strong magnetic field; a red line represents the fitted spectrum of emission lines, thought to arise in a disk that surrounds the central black hole of the AGN. (These are most clear at the right end.) The ions that are seen in emission are labelled: N V, C IV, He II etc. The Roman numeral is the charge of the ion plus one: N V is four-times ionized oxygen, meaning that four electrons have been stripped off the atom. The ion has a net charge of positive four. The black line traces the actual data. Below about 950 Å, neutral hydrogen absorption lines from the intergalactic medium exist in ... Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Oronce Fine, De mundi sphaera (Paris, 1542). Illustration of Oronce Fine, Astronomy personified and an armillary sphere. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Neil Armstrong on the Moon. This is one of the few photographs of Neil Armstrong on the moon; most images are of Buzz Aldrin. Neil Armstrong is standing in the shadow of the Eagle lunar module. The image was captured by Buzz Aldrin. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT X-ray Quantum Calorimeter (XQC). Image of the XQC array mounted on a circuit board and installed in the flight detector box. The XQC experiment is composed of a 36 pixel microcalorimeter X-ray detector. The entire array is micromachined from a single piece of silicon with each pixel measuring 0.5 x 2.0 mm. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Main Street in Hiroshima. The center of Hiroshima after the dropping of the atomic bomb on August 6, 1945. The street indicated in this photograph is approximately one half (0.5) mile from the location where the bomb was detonated indicating the extent of the devastation to the city’s buildings and roads. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Devastation at Hiroshima. Two personnel inspect a ruined building in the aftermath of the bombing of Hiroshima. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Center of Hiroshima. The center of Hiroshima after the dropping of the atomic bomb on August 6, 1945.The bomb destroyed approximately three-fourths of the city and killed an estimated 80,000 people immediately, with thousands more dying later from injuries and radiation poisoning. Records lead us to believe that the bomb touched down approximately halfway between the two smokestacks in this image. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT